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2013年12月大学英语六级真题


Part I Writing (30 minutes)


   作文一:大学快要毕业了,需要找工作,写一封求职信说明申请工作的原因和自己能胜任的理由。

  作文二:For this part, youare allowed 30 minutes to write an essay about the impact of informationexplosion by referring to the saying "a wealth ofinformation creates a poverty of attention". You can cite examplesto illustrate your point and then explain what you can do to avoid beingdistracted by irrelevant information? You should write at least 150 words butno more than 200 words.

  作文三:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write anessay on happiness by referring to the saying” Happiness is not the absence of probems ”,but the ability to dealwith them.” You can cite examples to illustrate your point and then explain how you can develop your ability todeal with problem and be happy .you should write at least 150words but nomore than 200words.

Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Section A
   Directions: In this section,you will hear 8 short conversationsand 2 long conversations.At the end of each conversation,one or more questionswill be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions willbe spoken only once.After each question there will be a pause.During thepause,you must read the four choice marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which isthe best answer.Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with asingle line through the centre.
   注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。
   1.A)Labor problems. C)An error in the order.
   B)Weatherconditions. D)Misplacing ofgoods.
   2.A)What the woman says makes a lot of sense.
   B)The rich are opposed to social welfare.
   C)He is sympathetic with poor people.
   D)He agrees with Mr.Johnso's views.
   3.A)He will be practicing soccer. C)He will be attending a meeting.
   B)He has work to finish in time. D)He has a tough problem to solve.
   4.A)Mary should get rid of her pet as soon as possible.
   B)Mary will not be able to keep a dog in the building.
   C)Mary is not happy with the ban on pet animals.
   D)Mary might as well send her dog to her relative.
   5.A)The twins' voices are quite different.
   B)Lisa and Gale are not very much alike.
   C)He does not believe they are twin sisters.
   D)The woman seems a bit hard of hearing.
   6.A)The serious economic crisis in Britain.
   B)A package deal to be signed in November.
   C)A message from their business accociates.
   D)Their ability to deal with financial problems.
   7.A)It is impossible to remove the stain completely.
   B)The man will be charged extra for the service.
   C)The man has to go to the main cleaning facility.
   D)Cleaning the pants will take longer than usual.
   8.A) European markets. C) Luxury goods.
   B) A protest rally. D) Imported products.
   Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have justheard.
   9. A) He made a business trip. C)He talked to her on the phone.
   B) He had a quarrel with Marsha. D) He resolved a budget problem.
   10.A) She may have to be fired for poor performance.
   B) She has developed some serious mental problem.
   C) She is in charge of the firm's budget planning.
   D) She supervises a number of important projects.
   11. A) She failed to arrive at the airport on time.
   B) David promised to go on the trip in her place.
   C) Something unexpected happened at her home.
   D) She was not feeling herself on that day.
   12.A) He frequently gets things mixed up.
   B) He is always finding fault with Marsha.
   C) He has been trying hard to cover for Marsha.
   D) He often fails to follow through on his projects.
   Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have justheard.
   13. A) They are better sheltered from all the outsidetemptations.
   B) They are usually more motivated to compete with their peers.
   C) They have more opportunities to develop their leadershipskills.
   D) They take an active part in more extracurricular activities.
   14. A) Its chief positions are held by women.
   B)Its teaching staff consists of women only.
   C) Its students aim at managerial posts.
   D) Its students are role models of women.
   15.A)It is under adequate control.
   B) It is traditional but colourful.
   C) They are more or less isolated from the outside world.
   D) They have ample opportunities to meet the opposite sex.
SectionB
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 shortpassages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both thepassage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line throughthe centre.
   注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。
PassageOne
   Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passageyou have just heard

  16.A. By invading the personal space of listeners
   B.BY making gestures at straiegic points
   C.BY speaking in a deep , loud voice
   D.BY speaking with the local accent

  17. A. To promote sportsmanship amongbusiness owners
   B.To encourage people to support local sports groups
   C.To raise money for a forthcoming local sports event
   D.To show his family'S contribution to the community

  18. A . They are known to be the style ofthe sports world
   B.They would certainly appeal to his audience
   C.They represent the latest fashion in the business circles
   D.They are believed to communicate power and influence

  19. A. To cover up his own nervousness
   B.To create a warm personal atmosphere
   C.To enhance the effect of background music
   D.To allow the audience to better enjoy his slides
   Passage Two
   Questions 20 to 22 are based on passage youhave just heard .

  20. A . She was the first educated slave ofjohn wheatley's
   B.She was the greatest female poet in colonial Americe
   C.She was born about the time df the war of independence
   D.She was the first African-American slave to publish a book

   21.A . Revise it a number of times
   B.Obtain consent from her owner
   C.Go through a scholarly examination
   D.Turn to the colonial governor for help

  22. A. Literary works calling for theabolition of slavery
   B.Religious scripts popular among slaves in America
   C.A rich stock of manuscripts left by historical figures
   D.Lots of lost works written by African-American women
Passage 3
   23. A)it is a trait ofgenerous character
   B) it is a reflection of self-esteem
   C) it is an indicator of high intelligence
   D) it is a sign of happiness and confidence
   24 A) it wasself-defeating
   B)it was aggressive
   C)it was the essence of comedy
   D) it was something admirable
   25) A)it is a double-edged sword
   B) it is a feature of a given culture
   C)it is a unique gift of human beings
   D)it is a result of both nature and nurture
SectionC
   Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When thepassage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its generalidea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill inthe blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passageis read for the third time, you should check what you have written.注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。It is important that we be mindful of the earth,theplanet out of which we are born and by which we are nourished,guided,healed-theplanet ,however,which we have(26)_____to a considerable degree in these pasttwo centuries of (27)_____exploitation,this exploitation has reachedsuceh(28)_________that presently it appears that some hundreds of thousands ofsepecies will be(29)______before the end of the century.

  In our times,human shrewdness has mastered thedeep(30)________of the earth at a level far beyond the capatities of earlierpeoples,we can break the mountains apart,we can drain the rivers and flood thevalleys,we can turn the most luxuriant forests into throwaway paper products,wecan(31)_________the great grass cover of the westem plains andpour(32)______chemicals into the soil until the soil is dead and blowsaway in the wind,We cn pollute the airwhith acids,the river with sewage(污水),the seas with oil.We can inventcomputers(33)______processing ten million calculations per second.And why?Toincrease the volume and thd wasteheap,our managerial skills are measured by the competence(34)____inaccelerating this process.If in these activities the physical features of theplanet are damaged,if the environment is made inhospitable for(35)_______livingspecies,then so be it ,We are ,supposedly,creating a technoligical wondreworld.

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  SectionA
Directions: In thissection, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select oneword for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following thepassage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Eachchoice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the correspondingletter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
   Questions 36 to 45 are based on the followingpassage.
   Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learningEnglish as a second language to speak only English, and not their nativelanguage, at home. Although these educators may have good (36) __________intentions, their advice to families is misguided, and it (37) __________ stems from misunderstandings about the processof language acquisition. Educators may fear that children hearing two languageswill become (38) __________permanentlyconfused and thus their languagedevelopment will be (39) __________ delayed;this concern is not documented in the literature. Children are capable oflearning more than one language, whether (40) __________simultaneouslyorsequentially(依次地). In fact, most children outside of the United States are expectedto become bilingual or even, in many cases, multilingual. Globally, knowingmore than one language is viewed as an (41) __________assetand even a necessityin many areas。
   It is also of concern that the misguided advice that students shouldspeak only English is given primarily to poor families with limited educationalopportunities, not to wealthier families who have many educational advantages.Since children from poor families often are (42) __________identified asat-risk for academic failure, teachers believe that advising families to speakEnglish only is appropriate. Teachers consider learning two languages to be too(43) __________overwhelming for children from poor families, believing that thechildren are already burdened by their home situations。
   If families do not know English or have limitedEnglish skills themselves, how can they communicate in English? Advisingnon-English-speaking families to speak only English is (44)__________equivalent to telling them not to communicate with or interact withtheir children. Moreover, the (45) __________underlying message is that thefamily's native language is not important or valued。

  A)Asset I)permanently

  B)Delayed j)prevalent

  C)Deviates k)simultaneously

  D)Equivalent L)stems

  E)Identified M)successively

  F)Intentions N)underlying

  G)Object O) visualizing

  H)overwhelming

section B
   Directions:In this section,you are going toread a passage wihe ten statements attached to it.Each statement containsinformation given in one of the paragraphs. Idetify the paragraph from whichthe information is derived.you may choose a paragraph more than once. Eachparagraph is marked with a letter.Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
   The Uses of Difficulty
   The brain likes a challenge-and putting a fewobstacles in its way may well boost its creativity.
   A)jack white, the former frontman of thewhite stripe and an influential figure among fellow musicians, likes to makethings difficult for himself. He uses cheap guitars that won't stay in shape orin tune. When performing, he positions his instruments in a way that isdeliberately inconvenient, so that swiching from guitar to organ mid-songinvolves a way that is deliberately inconvenient, so that switching from guitarto organ mid-song involves a mad dash across the stage. Why? Because he's onthe run from what he describes as a disease that preys on everyartist:"ease of use". When making music gets too easy, says white, itbecomes harder to make it sing.
   B)It's an odd thought. Why would anyone maketheir work more difficult than it already is? Yet we know that difficulty canpay unexpected dividends. In 1966,soon after the Beatles had finished work on"Rubber Soul", Paul McCartney looked into the possibility of going toAmerica to record their next album. The equipment in American studios was moreadvaced than anything in Britain, which had led the Beatles' great rivals,theRolling Stones, to make their latest album, "Aftermath", in LosAngles .McCartney found that EMI's (百代唱片)contractualclauses made it prohibitively expensive to follow suit, and the Beatles had tomake do with the primitive technology of Abbey Road.
   C) Lucky for us .Over the next two years theymade their most groundbreaking work. tuming the recording studio into a magicalinstrument of its own.Precisely because they were working with old-fashionedmachines, George Martin of its own.Precisely because they were woring withold-fashioed machines, George Martin and his team of engineers were forced toapply every ouce of their creativity to solve the problems posed to them byLennon and McCartney. Songs like"Tomrrow Never Knows","Strawberry Fields Forever ",and"A Day in the Life"featuredrevolutionary sound effectss that dazzled and mystified Martin's Americancounterparts.
   D)sometimes it's only when a difficulty isremoved that we realise what it was doing for us. For More than two decades,starting in the 1960s,the poet Ted Hughes sat on the judging panel of an annualpoetry competition for British schoolchiildren. During the 1980s he noticed anincreasing number of long poems among the submissions, with some running to 70or 80pages.
   These poems wer verbally inventive andfluent, but also"strangely boring",After making inquiries Hughesdiscovered that they were being composed on computer, then just finding theirway into British homes.
   E)You might have thought any tool whichenables a writer to get words on to the page would be an advantage .But theremay be a cost to such facility. In an interview with the Paris Review Hughesspeculated that when a person puts pen to paper, "you meet the terribleresistance of what happened your first year at it,when you couldn't write atall".As the brain attempts to force the unsteady hand to do its bidding,the tension between the two results in a more compressed, psychologicallydenser expression. Remove that resistance and you are more likely to produce a70-page ramble(不着边际的长篇大论).
   F)Our brains respond better to difficultythan we imagine, In schools,teachers and pupils alike often assume that if aconcept has been easy to learn, then the lesson has been successful.Butnumerous studies have now found that when classroom material is made harder toabsorb,pupils retain more of it over the long term, and undersand it on adeeper level.
   G)As a poet,Ted Hughes had an acutesensitivity to the way in which constraints on self-expression.like thedisciplines of metre rhyme(韵律),spurcreative theought.What applies to poets and musicians also applies to our dailylives,We tend to equate(等同)happinesswith freedom,but as the psyhotherapist and writer Adam Phillips hasobserved,without obstacles to our desires it's harder to know we want,or wherewe're heading.He tells the story of a patient,a first-time mother whocomplained that her young son war always clinging to her,wrapping himselfaround her legs wherever she went.she never had a momentto herself,shesaid,because her son was"always in the way".when phillips asked herwhere she would go if he wasn't in the way,she replied cheerfully."Oh,Iwouldn't know where I was!"
   H)Take another common obstacle:lack ofmoney.People often assume that more money will make them happier.But economistswho study the relationship between money and happiness have consistently foundthat,above a certain income,the two do not reliably correlate,Despite the easewith which the rich can acquire almost anything they desire,they are just aslikely to be unhappy as the middle classes.In this regard a least,F.ScottFitzgerald was wrong.
   I) Indeed,ease of acquisition is theproblem,The novelist Edward St Aubyn has a narrator remark of the very richthat,"not having to consider affordability,their desires rambled on likeunstoppable bores,relentless(持续不断的) andwhicsical(反覆无常的)at the same time" When Boston College,aprivate research university,wanted a better feel for its potential donors,itasked the psychologist Robert Kenny to inverstigate the mindset of the super-rich.Hesurveyed 165 households,most of which had a net worth of$25m or more.he foundthat many of his subjects were confused by the infinitepotions their money presented them with. They found it hard to know what towant, creating a kind of existential bafflement. One of them put it like this:“You know, Bob ,you can just buy so much stuff, and when you get tothe point where you can just buy so much stuff, now what are you going to do?”
   J) The internet makes informationbillionaires out of all of us, and the architects of our online experiences arecatching on to the need to make things creatively difficult. Twitter's hugesuccess is rooted in the simple but profound insight that in a medium withinfinite space for self-expression, the most interesting thing we can do is restrictourselves to 140 characters. The music service This Is My Jam helps peoplenavigate the tens of millions of tracks now available instantly via Spotify andiTunes. Users pick their favourite song of the week to share with others . Theyonly get to choose one. The service was only launched this year but by the endof September 650,000 jams had been chosen, Its co-founder Matt Ogle explainsits raison detre(存在的理由)like this:”In anage of endless choice, we were missing a way to say:' This. This is the one youshould listen to'”
   K)Today's world offers more opportunitythan ever to follow the advice of the Walker Brothers and make it easy onourselves. Compared with a hundred years ago, our lives are less tightly boundby social norms and physical constraints. Technology has cut out much of life'sdonkeywork, and we have more freedoms than ever. We can wear what we like andcommunicate with hundreds of friends at once at the click of a mouse. Obstaclesare everywhere disappearing. Few of us wish to turn the clock back, but perhapswe need to remind ourselves how useful the right obstacles can be. Sometimes,the best route to fulfillment is the path of more resistance.
   注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答
   46.The rigorous requirements placed on thewriting of poetry stimulate the poet's creativity.
   47.With creativity , even old-fashionedinstruments may produce spectacular sound effects.
   48.It is a false assumption that lessonsshould be made easier to learn.
   49. It is a false assumption that lessonsshould be made easier to learn.
   50.Obstacles deliberately placed in thecreation of music contribute to its success.
   51.Those who enjoy total freedom may notfind themselves happy.
   52.Ted Hughes discovered many long poemssubmitted for poetry competition were composed on computers.
   53.Maybe we need to bear in mind that theright obstacles help lead us to greater achievements.
   54.An investigation found that many of thesuper-rich were baffled by the infinite choices their money made available.
   55.One free social networking websiteturned out to be successful because it limited each pasting to one hundred andforty characters.

SectionC
   Directions: There are 2 passages in thissection. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). You shoulddecide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2with a single line through the centre.
PassageOne
   Questions 56 to 60 are based on thefollowing passage.
   There was a time no long ago when newscience Ph.D.s in the United States were expected to pursue a career path inacademia(学术界).But today, mostgraduates end up working outside academia. not only in industry but also incareers such as science policy, communications, and patent law. Partly this isa result of how bleak the academic job market is, but there's also a risingawareness of career options that Ph.D. scientists haven't trained fordirectly-but for which they have useful knowledge, skills, and experience.Still, there's a huge disconnect between the way we currently train scientistsand the actual employment opportunities available for them, and an urgent needfor dramatic improvements in training programs to help close the gap. Onecritical step that could help to drive change would be to require Ph.D.students and postdoctoral scientists to follow an individual developmentplan(IDP).
   In 2002,the U.S Federation of AmericanSocieties for Experimental Biology recommended that every postdoctoralresearcher put together an IDP in consultation with an adviser. Since then,several academic institutions have begun to require IDPs for postdocs. And inJune, the U.S. Na-tional Institutes of Health(NIH) Biomedical ResearchWorkforce Working Group recommended that the NIH require IDPs for theapproximately 32,000 postdoctoral researchers they support, Other fundingagencies, public and private, are moving in a similar direction.
   IDPs have long been used by governmentagencies and the private sector to achieve specific goals for the employee andthe organization. The aim is to ensure that employees have an explicit tool tohelp them understand their own abilities and aspirations, determine careerpossibilities, and set (usually short-term) goals. In science, graduatestudents and new Ph.D. scientists can use an IDP to identify and navigate aneffective career path.
   A free Web application for this purpose, called myIDP, has becomeavailable this week. It's designed to guide carly-career scientists through aconfidential. rigorous process of introspection(内省) to create a customized career plan. Guided by expert knowledgefrom a panel of science focused career advisers, each trainee's self-assessmentis used to rank a set of career trajectories(轨迹). After the user has identified a long-term career goal, myIDPwalks her or him through the process of setting short-term goals directedloward accumulating new skills and experiences important for that careerchoice.
   Although surverys reveal the IDPprocess to be useful. Trainees report a need for additional resources to helpthem identify a long-term career path and complete an IDP. Thus, myIDP will bemost effective when it's embedded in larger career-development efforts. Forexample, universities could incorporate IDPs into their graduate curricula tohelp students discuss, plan, prepare for, and achieve their long-term careergoals.

   注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答.

   56. What do we learn about new science Ph.D.s in the United States today?
   A)They lack the skills and expertise needed for their jobs.
   B)They can choose from a wider range of well-paying jobs.
   C)They often have to seek jobs outside the academiccircle
   D)They are regarded as the nation's driving force of change
   57.What does the author say about America's Ph.D. training?
   A)It should be improved to better suit the job market.
   B)It is closely linked to future career requirements.
   C)It should be re-oriented to careers outside academia.
   D)It includes a great variety of practical courses.
   58. What was recommended for Ph.D.s and postdoctoral researchers?
   A)They meet the urgent needs of the corporate world.
   B)A long-term career goal be set as early as possible.
   C)An IDP be made in consultation with an adviser.
   D)They acquire an explicit tool to helpobtain jobs.
   59. Government agencies and the private sector often use IDPs to_________.
   A)bring into full play the skills and expertise of their postdoctoralresearchers
   B)help employees make the best use of their abilities to achieve their careergoals
   C)place employees in the most appropriate positions
   D)hire the most suitable candidates to work for them
   60. What do we know about myIDP?
   A)It is an effective tool of self-assessment and introspection for bettercareer plans.
   B)It enables people to look into various possibilities and choose the careerthey love.
   C)It promise a long-term career path.
   D)It is part of the graduate curricula
Passage Two
   Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
   Just over a decade into the 21stcentury, women's progress can be celebrated across a range of fields. They holdthe highest political offices from Thailand to Brazil, Costa Rica to Australia.A woman holds the top spot at the International Monetary Fund; another won theNobel Prize in economics. Self-made billionaires in Beijing, tech innovators inSilicon Valley, pioneering justices in Ghana-in these and countless otherareas, women are leaving their mark.
   But hold the applause. In SaudiArabia, women aren't allowed to drive. In Pakistan. 1,000 women die in honorkillings every year. In the developed world, women lag behind men in pay andpolitical power. The poverty rate among women in the U.S. rose to 14.5% lastyear.
   To measure the state of women'sprogress, Newsweek ranked 165 countries, looking at five areas that affectwomen's lives: treatment under the law, workforce participation, politicalpower, and access to education and health care. Analyzing data from the UnitedNations and the World Economic Forum, among others, and consulting with expertsand academics, we measured 28 factors to come up with our rankings.
   Counties with the highest scores tendto be clustered in the West, where gender discrimination is against the law,and equal rights are constitutionally enshrined(神圣化). But there were some surprise. Some otherwise high-rankingcountries had relatively low scores for political representation. Canada rankedthird overall but 26th in power, behind countries such as Cuba andBurundi. Does this suggest that a woman in a nation's top office translates tobetter lives for women in gencral? Not exactly. “Trying to quantify or measurethe impact of women in politics is hard because in very few countries havethere been enough women in politics to make a difference.” Says Anne-MarieGoetz, peace and security adviser for U.N. Women.
   Of course, no index can account for everything.Declaring that onecountry is better than another in the way that it treats more than half itscitizens means relying on broad strokes and generalities. Some things simplycan't be measured. And cross-cultural comparisons can't account for differencesof opinion.
   Certain conclusions are nonethelessclear. For one thing, our index backs up a simple but profound statement madeby Hillary Clinton at the recent Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit. “Whenwe liberate the economic potential of women. We elevate the economicperformance of communities, nations, and the world,” she said,” There's astimulative effect that kicks in when women have greater access to jobs and theeconomic lives of our countries: Greater political stability. Fewer militaryconflicts. More food. More educational opportunity for children. By harnessingthe economic potential of all women. We boost opportunity for all people.”
   注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。
   61.What does the author think about women's progress so far?
   A.It still leaves much to be desired
   B.It is too remarkable to be measured
   C.It has greatly changed women's fate
   D.It is achieved through hard atruggle
   62.In what countries have women made the greatest progress?
   A.Where women hold key posts in government
   B.Where women's rights are protected by law
   C.Where women's participation in management is high
   D.Where women enjoy better education and health care

  63.What do Newsweek ranking reveal about women in Canada?
   A.They care little about political participation
   B.They are generally treated as equals by men
   C.They have a surprisingly low social atatus
   D.They are underrepresented in politics

  

64.What does Anne-Marie Goetz think of a women being in anation's top office?
   A.It does not necessarily raise women's political awareness
   B.It does not guarantee a better life for the nation'swomen
   C.It enhances women ‘s status
   D.It boosts women's confidence
   65.What does Hillary Clinton suggest we do to make the world abetter place?
   A.Give women more political power
   B.Stimulate women's creativity
   C.Allow women access to education
   D.Tap women's economic potential

  

Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
   Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes totranslate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer onAnswer Sheet 2.
   翻译一:中国人自古以来就在中秋时节庆祝丰收,这与北美地区庆祝感恩节的习俗十分相似,过中秋节的习俗与唐代早期在中国各地开始流行,中秋节在农历八月十五,是人们拜月的节日,这天夜晚皓月当空,人们合家团聚,共赏明月。2006年,中秋节被列为中国的文化遗产,2008年又被定为公共假日,月饼被视为中秋节不可 或缺的美食,人们将月饼作为礼物馈赠亲友或在家庭聚会上享用。传统的月饼上带有“寿”(longevity)、“福”或“和”等字样。

  翻译二:丝绸之路:闻名于世的丝绸之路是一系列连接东西方的路线。丝绸之路是古代中国的丝绸贸易。丝绸之路上的贸易在中国、南亚、欧洲和发挥这重要作用。正是通过丝绸之路,中国的造纸、火药、指南针、印刷术传遍各地。同样,中国的丝绸、茶叶和瓷器也传遍各地,欧洲也是通过丝绸之路出口各种商品和植物,满足中国市场的需要。

  翻译三:中国园林是经过三千多年演化而成的独具一格的园林景观。它既包括为皇室成员享乐而建造的大型花园,也包括学者、商人和卸任的政府官员为摆脱嘈杂的外部世界而建造的私家花园。这些花园构成了一种意在表达人与自然之间应有的调和关系的微缩景观。典型的中国园林周围有围墙,园内有池塘、假山、树木、花草一级各种各样由弯曲的小路和走廊衔接的建筑。散步在花园中,人们可以看到一系列精心设计的景观犹如山水画卷一般展示在面前。

 

 

 

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