Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Thinner isn ’ t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For e xample, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.
Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to b e normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.
While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professio nal football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.
Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and heal th professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity, _18_in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity _19_.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities. Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Oba ma launched a high-visibility campaign _20_ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.
1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured
【解析】 题干中，一系列的研究已经_____，事实上，正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。根据句义，后面的部分实际上是研究的结论，因此concluded 符合题意，其他选项denied(否认)与意义相反，doubled(翻倍)与题意较远，ensured(确保)不符合题意，因为研究不能确保后面的事 实，只能得出后面的事实作为结论。所以正确答案为B。
2. [A] protective [ B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome
【解析】 题干中，对于某些健康情况，超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论，超重能减少罹患疾病的风险，说明超重具有一定的保护作用。Dangerous 和文章意思相反，sufficient表示充足，troublesome表示有麻烦，不符合题意，所以正确答案为A。
3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore
【解析】第三句话中，较重的女人患缺钙的比例低于较瘦的女人。_____，在老年人中，一定程度上超重……。需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词 语。A选项instead表示逆接的句意关系，B选项however也表示逆接，D选项therefore表示因此，只有C选项likewise意为同样 地;也，而且。因此正确答案为C。
4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example
5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern
【解析】本句话的句意是，需要更加_____是，很难对肥胖加以定义。A、impact(印象);B、relevance(相关性);C、 assistance(辅助);D、concern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康，但是又面临一个问题，到底如何去定义肥胖，因此需要更加关 注的是对肥的定义，其他选项均不符合题意，所以正确答案为D。
6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of
、【答案】A in terms of
【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数，或称为BMI来定义。A、in terms of ，根据……，就……而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下， C、in favor of 表示赞成，以……来取代，D、in respect of，关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标，希望考生能够记住这一背景知识，方便日后做题。
7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [ D] modifies
【解析】本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方，这里是用文字叙述了BMI指数得出的方法，也就是一个数学公式，所以equal符合题 意。A measure(测量)、B determine表示确定;D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平方。
8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part
、【答案】C in turn
【解析】本题题干中，肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。A、in essence(事实上、实际上); B、in contrast (相反地);C、in turn(依次); D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级，所以正确答案为C。
9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward
【解析】题干中，相比之下，这样的数字标准看起来_____，实际上不是的。A、complicated (复杂);B、conservative(保守)、C、variable(可变的);D、straightforward(直截了当);这里的数字标准指 的就是肥胖指数，肥胖指数分为三类，而且算法比较简单，所以A复杂不正确，B选项保守，用于描述一种数学公式，不恰当，一名患者或一名受试者的BMI一般 是确定的，因此可变的也不符合题意，D选项straightforward表示直截了当，符合题意，因此正确答案为D。
?????? 10. [A] so [B] unlike [C] since [D] unless
【解析】本句中，一些人有很高的BMI，实际上身材正好，_____其他人有较低的BMI指数，可能_____。从前半句我们可以看出，有些人 的BMI指数很高，应该属于体重肥胖的人，事实上身材正好，这里说明的是反常的现象，后半句是其他人的BMI指数较低，而_____较差。A、so(所 以);B、while(而);C、since(因为);D、unless(除非)四个选项中只有while有转折的含义，其他选项均不符合题意，所以正确 答案为B。
11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste
【解析】本题可以简化为：Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor .不难看出，前后意义相反，且fit(体型健康)与in poor 对应，与之最相关是A shape(外形)，故为正确答案。"精神"、"均衡"、"品味"都相差比较远，可以排除。
12. [A] start [ B] quality [C] retire [D] stay
13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant
14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [ D] tendency
【解析】本题解题关键是后半句：to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖)，作为划线部分的后置定语，将四个选项"选择""理由""机会""倾向"代入划线处，最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进 一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)。
15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored
【解析】空格所在句提到了媒体，根据语境，上句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖，所以本句的意思应该是媒体污蔑肥胖，四个选项中，跟媒体相关系的词汇只有b picture 意思为刻画，描写，描述。
16. [A] [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated
【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰，缺乏意志力，对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰，缺乏意志力和对成功的期望 值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现，分析四个选项，A. 与。。。相比;B 与。。。相结合;C. 和。。。和解;都不符合题意，只有D与。。。相联系，相关符合句意。
17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only
【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重，而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本空格缺少一个副词，根据语境记忆常识，此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇，分析四个选项，只有A even 即使符合题意。
18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded
19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies
【解析】解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词汇，比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统中所出台的政策的问题，浏览四个选项，D选项policies 符合题意，直接入选。
20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without
【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖，本句话属于细节的句子，用来支持这个主题，空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童 肥胖，甚至告诉奥兹博士，它代表了我们国家最大的安全威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对，反抗的意思，纵观四个选项，只有B against 符合题意。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
21. According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?
[A]A big house
[B]A special tour
[C]A stylish car
[D]A rich meal
、【答案】B A special tour
【解析】细节题。答案定位在第二段的"it is far better to spend money on experiences…like interesting trips…"，意思是"花钱消费在经历方面更好……，比如说有趣的旅行……"，由此可以得知答案是B选项"一场特别的旅行"。
22. The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is
【解析】观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的"something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it"，意思是"普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视，并且看电视几乎不可能更愉快"，因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是A选项"批判的"。
23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that
[A]consumers are sometimes irrational
[B]popularity usually comes after quality
[C]marketing tricks are after effective
[D]rarity generally increases pleasure
、【答案】D rarity generally increases pleasure
【解析】观点例证题。答案定位在第三段，文章中提到Mc Rib这个例子，用这个例子证明的论点是"luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly"，大意是"有节制地消费奢侈品最令人愉悦"，D选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。
24. According to the last paragraph,Happy Money
[A]has left much room for readers’criticism
[B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
[C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us
[D]may give its readers a sense of achievement
【答案】B may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
【解析】细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句"most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent"，大意是"大多数人看完这本书后，认为物有所值"，因此可以推知B选项是正确答案。
25. This text mainly discusses how to
[A]balance feeling good and spending money
[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries
[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent
[D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries
【答案】A balance feeling good and spending money
An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.
26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.
[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high
[B] illusory superiority is baseless effect
[C] our need for leadership is unnatural
[D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
、【答案】A our self-ratings are unrealistically high
【解析】题目问 "根据第一段，社会心理学家发现了什么?"对应于文章第一 段第三句"社会心理学家对所谓的‘高于均数效应’或者‘虚幻的优越感’进行大量的研究，发现我们中70%的人认为自己的领导力在平均水平之上……—这些数 据明显都是不可能的。"由此可知，我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high。
27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______
[A] rapid watching
[B] conscious choice
[C] intuitive response
[D] automatic self-defence
【答案】C intuitive response
【解析】题目问"视觉识别被认为是人们的什么?"对应于文章第三段第三句"视觉识别是自动的心理过程，这个过程依靠直觉快速发生，且并不是故意的。"由此可知，视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故答案为[C] intuitive response。
28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______
[A] underestimate their insecurities
[B] believe in their attractiveness
[C] cover up their depressions
[D] oversimplify their illusions
【答案】B believe in their attractiveness
【解析】题目问"Epley发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样"。对应到第四段，第二句讲到"没有证据显示那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为了掩饰自 己的不安全，接着讲到：事实上，那些认为自己的形象高于吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人，故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness。
29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
【解析】题目问"最接近viscerally的意思的是?"。对应到第五段，viscerally所在句讲到"许多人讨厌照片中的自己，从某种 层面上说，他们甚至不承认照片中的人是他们自己。"而下文又讲到facebook是自我拔高者的天堂，在那里人们可以分享最满意的的照片。"由此可 知，viscerally在本句中是"本质上地"意思，故答案为[A] instinctively。
30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can _____.
[A]present their dishonest profiles
[B]define their traditional life styles
[C]share their intellectual pursuits
[D]withhold their unflattering sides
【答案】[D]withhold their unflattering sides
【解析】题干问"我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂，是因为人们可以做什么?"对应于文章最后一段的第二 句，该句讲到"在脸书(facebook)中，人们可以分享最满意的照片。"下文接着讲到"不是人们不诚实，而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。"故答案为 [D]withhold their unflattering sides。
Crying is hardly an activity encouraged by society. Tears, be they of sorrow, anger, on joy, typically make Americans feel uncomforuble and embarrassed. The shedder of tears is likely to apologize, even when a devastating ( 毁灭性的 ) tragedy was the provocation. The observer of tears is likely to do everything possible to put an end to the emotional outpouring. But judging form recent studies of crying behavior, links between illness and crying and the chemical composition of tears, both those responses to tears are often inappropriate and may even be counterproductive.
Humans are the only animals definitely known to shed emotional tears. Since evolution has given rise to few, if any, purposeless physiological responset, it is logical to assume that crying has one or more functions that enhance survival.
Although some observers have suggested that crying is a way to clicit assistance form others (as a crying baby might from its mother), the shedding of tears is hardly necessary to get help. Vocal cries would have been quite enough, more likely than tears to gain attention, So, it appears, there must be something special about tears themselves.
Indeed, the new studies suggest that emotional tears may play a direct role in alleviating stress, University of Minnesota researchers who are studying the chemical composition of tears have recently isolated two important chemicals from emotional tears. Both chemicals are found only in tears that are shed in response to emotion. Tears shed because of exposure to =cut onion would contain no such substance.
Researchers at several other institutions are investigating the usefulness of tears as a means of diagnosing human ills and monitoring drugs.
At Tulane University’s Teat Analysis Laboratory Dr.Peter Kastl and his colleagues report that they can use tears to detect drug abuse and exposure to medication( 药物 ), to determine whether a contact lens fits properly of why it may be uncomfortable, to study the causes of “dry eye” syndrome and the effects of eye surgery, and perhaps even to measure exposure to environmental pollutants.
At Columbia University Dt.Liasy Faris and colleagues are studying tears for clues to the diagnosis of diseases away from the eyes. Tears can be obtained painlessly without invading the body and only tiny amounts are needed to perform highly refined analyses.
31. It is known from the first paragraph that ________.
A) shedding tears gives unpleasant feelings to American
B) crying may often imitate people or even result in tragedy
C) crying usually wins sympathy from other people
D) one who sheds tears in public will be blamed
32. What does “both those responses to tears”(Line 6, Para, 1) refer to?
A) Crying out of sorrow and shedding tears for happiness.
B) The embarrassment and unpleasant sensation of the observers.
C) The tear shedder’s apology and the observer’s effort to stop the crying.
D) Linking illness with crying and finding the chemical composition of tears.
33. “Counterproductive” (Lines 6-7, Para,1) very probably means “________”.
A) having no effect at all
B) leading to tension
C) producing disastrous impact
D) harmful to health
34. What does the author say about crying?
A) It is a pointless physiological response to the environment.
B) It must have a role to play in man’s survival.
C) It is meant to get attention and assistance.
D) It usually produces the desired effect.
35. What can be inferred from the new studies of tears?
A) Emotional tears have the function of reducing stress.
B) Exposure to excessive medication may increase emotional tears.
C) Emotional tears can give rise to “dry eye” syndrome in some cases.
D) Environmental pollutants can induce the shedding of emotional tears.
When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.
Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.
The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.
Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.
But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.
36. The author believes that the housing sector__
[A] has attracted much attention
[B] involves certain political factors
[C] shoulders too much responsibility
[D] has lost its real value in economy
【答案】[B] involves certain political factors
【解析】 根据本题题干中的关键词housing sector可以对应到文章的第二段， 中间说的很多，我们注意到最后有but出现，最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点，另外这里用了the most significant 最高级，所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因，politically charged和选项B的political factors有对应关系，故选B involves certain political factors。
A项的吸引注意没有提及，C项的承担太多责任，原文说的shoulder the blame，D项说的丧失价值，原文说的是不善于表明真正价值，两者不一致，故排除。
37. It can be learned that affordable housing has__
[A] increased its home supply
[B] offered spending opportunities
[C] suffered government biases
[D] disappointed the government
【答案】[C] suffered government biases
【解析】经济适用房曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一边并且采取一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。Suffered 是过去式，是对于原文history 的同义反复，biases 是对原文prejudices的同义反复。
38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______.
[A] allow greater government debt for housing
[B] stop local authorities from building homes
[C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt
[D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast
【答案】[A] allow greater government debt for housing
【解析】根据人名George Osborne定位得知，此人将会让当地政府用来偿还建房借贷的限额变得更加宽松，并且在借贷限额放宽的情况下，将会另有60,000所房屋在未来的五年 中建立，并由此拉动国内生产总值的百分之零点六。因此A(允许更大的政府的建房借贷)是正确的，而B(禁止当地政府建房)，C(准备减少建房借 贷)，D(发布国内生产总值增长的预报)都与原文意思不符。
39. It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.
[A]lower the costs of registered providers
[B]lessen the impact of government interference
[C]contribute to funding new developments
[D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities
【答案】[C] contribute to funding new developments
【解析】推断题。根据文章题干定位到第五段，题干考察的是对稳定的租赁环境的理解。A项的意思是"减少注册供应者的成本"，其中"成本一词"并 未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B项的意思是"减少政府接介入的影响"，其中"政府介入"并未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B项的意思是"有助于为新发展提供 资金支持"，其中"为新发展提供资金支持"对应文中的"fund new developments";C选项中的"contribute to"(意思是有助于)对英文中的have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响)，符合正解的同义复现原则，所以是正确选项。
40. The author believes that after 2015,the government may______.
[A]implement more policies to support housing
[B]review the need for large-scale public grants
[C]renew the affordable housing grants programme
[D]stop generous funding to the housing sector
【答案】[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector
【解析】推断题。根据题干定位到最后一段第三行。考察的是2015年以后政府的可能性动作。A项的意思是"推行更多的政策来支持住房"与原文意 义相反。B项的意思是重新审视大规模公共拨款的需求，与原文倒数第二段意义相违背。C项的意思是更新可负担的住房拨款项目并没有提到renew一词。D项 的意思是停止对住房部门的大额资助，与原文的倒数第二句相匹配，故为正确选项。
Section III Translation
Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.
Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.
Section IV Writing
47. Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to
1)tell him about your living habits, and
2)ask for advice about living there.
I am Li Ming who will go to study in your university and live together with you in one department. Now I am writing this letter to tell you some of my habits and ask you for some suggestions to adapt myself there.
To begin with, I usually get up early in the morning at six o’clock and then go out to do some exercise. To continue, I would like to spend my spare time in reading in the library. Meanwhile, I wonder if you could be so kind to offer me some proposals on how to get used to the life there.
I am looking forward to seeing you soon and wish everything goes well.
You should write about 100 words on answer sheet.
Do not use your own name.
48. Directions: Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
1. interpret the chart, and
2. give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
What is clearly presented in the above chart is the different numbers of urban residents and rural population among 1990,2000 and 2010.The number of urban residents climbed steadily from 300 million in 1990 to 660 million or so in 2010，while rural population decreased slightly from about 820 million to 680 million or so in the same period.
It is not difficult to come up with some possible factors accounting for this trend. On the one hand, with the rapid development of economy and society, people in mounting numbers crowd into cities in search of employment, a decent living and the excitement of urban life recently. On the other hand, the economy in the rural districts is comparative less developed and thus the opportunity to make money and pursue their future is as well lean. As a result, an increasing number of folks are trying to escape this destiny by flocking into the urban areas.
Given the analyses above, I firmly believe that such established trend will surely continue for quite a while in the forthcoming years and due importance should be attached to this evident situation.